Jorgo Chatzimarkakis, CEO Hydrogen Europe
Chatzimarkakis is the CEO of Hydrogen Europe, a European association representing
the hydrogen industry and its stakeholders. Prior to joining Hydrogen Europe,
Jorgo previously worked in the planning department of Germany’s Foreign Office
and at Infineon Technologies. Between 2004 and 2014 he was a Member of the
European Parliament, where he was also a member of the Industry, Technology,
Research and Energy Committee (ITRE) contributing to creating the groundwork
for the Parliament’s first and the second Joint Undertaking on hydrogen and
Jorgo was awarded Hydrogen Person of the Year at the World Hydrogen Awards in 2022 and was described as ‘a major player promoting hydrogen in Europe and world-wide, accelerating collaboration and industry development’. Jorgo was born in Duisburg, Germany. He holds German and Greek nationality, and has a degree in political science from the University of Bonn.
Ensuring a central role for green and
hydrogen is crucial for Europe’s energy transition.
First, it will enable Europe to decarbonise the so-called ‘hard to abate’ industrial sectors that will otherwise not benefit from direct electrification. This includes vital manufacturing sectors such as the steel industry, as well as the cement and fertiliser segments. Securing a healthy hydrogen value chain in Europe will permit us to decarbonise our energy sector faster and more assuredly than with just pure electrification.
Exploiting new hydrogen sources will also allow Europe to secure its energy dependence. Advancements towards this important development would mean the Continent will no longer have to rely on the import of fossil fuels from the likes of Russia, an issue that has come into sharp focus with recent events in the Ukraine.
In the context of hydrogen, we see the biggest impact taking place in the power and transport industries.
The latter is particularly pertinent for RINA, as hydrogen offers the maritime transport sector an opportunity to significantly decarbonise its fuel sources. Europe’s FuelsEU Maritime legislative proposal put forward last year will play a key role.
To support the uptake of sustainable maritime fuels, the EC proposes to limit the carbon intensity of the energy used on board ships. The proposal sets up a fuel standard for ships and introduces a requirement for the most polluting ship types to use onshore electricity when at berth. The legislative outcome of this proposal will work hand-in-hand with the simultaneous proposals to include the maritime sector in the EU emissions trading system.
Dr. Giorgio Graditi, General Manager of ENEA
Dr. Eng. Giorgio
Graditi graduated with a PhD in Electrical Engineering and in 2011 became
head of the Photovoltaic Unit of ENEA (the Italian National Agency for New
Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) in 2011.
In 2020, he became the Director of the Department of Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources at ENEA. Since February 2022 he has also been responsible for ENEA’s initiatives and activities within Italy’s National recovery and Resilience Plan. He is now General Manager of ENEA.
In addition, he is President of MEDENER, the Mediterranean Association of National Agencies for Energy Management for energy efficiency and the development of renewable energy sources, and the Coordinator of the Scientific Technical Committee of National Energy Technological Cluster under the Ministry of Education, University and Research. He is also the vice-coordinator of the Joint Programme on Smart Grid (JP SG) within the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA).
Giorgio has authored several scientific books, and more than 250 scientific papers (with Scopus H-index 37). He is based in Rome, Italy.
The transition to
a net-zero economy by mid-century will radically transform our energy systems, our
land and agricultural sectors, our industrial processes, and our transport
systems and cities. In brief, it will impact all activities in our society.
In this context, citizens need to play a central role: energy transitions and climate change can only be tackled if people actively engage, both as consumers and as citizens. The social acceptance of new systems and technologies is one of the most crucial aspects.
At a ground level, arguably the most challenging segments of society to decarbonise at the moment are the industrial processes.
This is because some of the technological solutions are not yet market-ready, and at the same time require huge investments in order to be implemented. These are the so-called “hard to abate” industries, where either technology is lacking or the cost remains prohibitive.
In terms of the split between energy sources, there are several varying outlooks issued by different entities. However, all the scenarios indicate that each technology, and each energy vector, is set to play a role, albeit with different levels of market penetration over the short or long term.
Regardless of the individual energy source, we believe it is strategically vital to link the energy sectors, in terms of “Smart sector integration” (electricity, heat, cold, gas, solid and liquid fuels). This will enable the optimisation of the energy system as a whole, as opposed to decarbonising and making efficiency gains in each sector independently.
The objective should be to include all existing and emerging technologies, processes and business models, such as ICT and digitalisation, smart grids and meters, and flexibility markets, into one whole.
The goals are achievable but in Italy, as elsewhere, the process will be challenging. Reaching the objective of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 will require rapid, widespread and deep societal and economic change within one generation in Italy. It will touch every sector of the Italian economy. We will have to find ways to effectively decarbonise not only industry but also the Italian residential ¹ and transport sectors ², which will be extremely challenging.
¹ The building stock consists to a large extent of older buildings; more than 65% were built before the law on energy efficiency was adapted in 1976. Over 50% of the buildings registered in the Information System on Energy Performance Certificates are in the two worst performing classes (F and G). The car fleet is also relatively old with 23% of the cars in Euro 6 class, 18% in Euro 5 and 27% in Euro 4. Some 9% is in Euro class 0, so dates back to before 1992.
² Between 2015 and 2019 the energy consumption of the transport sector remained fairly constant and accounted on average for 29.5% of TFC. In 2020, several restrictions linked with the Covid-19 pandemic drove the share down to 27%, as energy demand from the transport sector dropped by 19% between 2019 and 2020. The main fuel used in transport is diesel (61% in 2020), followed by gasoline (21%). Italy has significantly high shares of LPG and natural gas in transport. The share of EVs is increasing and reached 0.6% of the fleet in 2021, but is well below the EU average, 1.6%.
Molten salt solar collector facility at ENEA Casaccia Research center
In 2019, the last year prior to Covid) the
Italian transport sector was responsible for 25.2% of total greenhouse gas
emissions and 30.7% of total CO2 emissions in the country.
Some 92.6% of these emissions were attributable to road transport. However, while overall emissions in Italy decreased by 19% between 1990 and 2019, transport is one of the few sectors, alongside residential, services and waste, that recorded an increase in emissions (+3.2% compared to 1990).
Italy’s National Integrated Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) foresees that the existing measures will not be sufficient to achieve Italy’s 2030 target in the non-ETS (Emissions Trading System) sector. Under the “existing measures” scenario, 2030 emissions are projected to be -29% below their 2005 level, compared to the -33% target.
The gap of 142 Mt CO2-eq is expected to be filled by cutting emissions primarily in transport, buildings and industry. In addition, the 2030 climate and energy targets are likely to increase as part of the Fit-for-55 package (Italy must contribute to meeting the EU-wide Nationally Determined Contribution of GHG emission reduction of 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels instead of 40%).
With the Fit-for-55 package still being negotiated and the need to revise the NECP by 2023 (as required by the EU Governance Regulation), there is still space to manoeuvre to build on the promising measures of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) and redirect Italian climate policy towards a higher ambition.
Current and planned policies and measures are skewed towards the supply side (renewable electricity production, use of biofuels and biogases, electric mobility).
It is necessary to address final consumption in all sectors as well, in order to achieve significant greenhouse gas emission reductions.
In Italy, we have enjoyed a long standing collaboration with RINA, having worked together on several European projects and R&D initiatives in the energy sector.
RINA and ENEA were also the two most successful Italian organisations in the tenders called by Horizon 2020, the EU’s research and innovation 2014-2020 funding programme.
Since then we have strengthened our collaboration by signing a memorandum of understanding on hydrogen issues. This functions both in the technological field and also in supporting the further development and definition of the standards necessary for the certification of the use of the new energy vector.
There remains great potential going forward. The new EU strategy lays out the foundation for the decarbonised European energy system of the future, identifying the technological areas of greatest interest (renewables, hydrogen valley, smart grid, enabling technologies, sustainable materials for energy, etc.).
In this context ENEA and RINA could support and assist the industry during the first industrial deployment, filling the gap between the lab- and the industry-scale, thanks to their skills, R&D infrastructures and experimental facilities.
Henrique Pinto Correia and Diogo Vasconcelos, EEM - Empresa de Electricidade da Madeira
Pinto Correia graduated with an MSc in Energy and Environmental Engineering
from the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon in 2016. He completed
a curricular internship at the Networks and Energy Analysis Unit of the National
Energy and Geology Laboratory (LNEG) related to the RES in the Iberian Market.
Since 2017, Henrique has been working directly in the Madeira regional
electricity sector, and he is currently integrated in the Directorate of Studies and Planning at
EEM (Empresa de Electricidade da Madeira
S.A.), where he is directly involved in European projects, Electric Mobility
and Energy Quality. His professional areas of interest include the integration
of electric vehicles as flexibility assets in the electrical sector, renewable
energies, energy efficiency and HVAC.
Diogo Vasconcelos has a degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering and has worked across several different disciplines in his professional career. Initially he worked in the automotive industry in both Brazil and Germany. Subsequently, in 2004 he started his collaboration with EEM ((Empresa de Electricidade da Madeira S.A.), Madeira’s public electricity company, in the areas of renewable energies, environment and sustainability, and natural gas. Since 2011, Diogo’s roles have focused particularly on electric mobility and managing several European Union co-financed projects. Accumulating other functions in the Directorate of Studies and Planning, he was the project manager (PM) of the first two large scale BESS installed in the Madeira Archipelago (one in Porto Santo and the other in Madeira), which was co-financed by EU funding, and he is currently the PM of Porto Santo Island’s second large scale BESS. Diogo is committed to promoting technology and innovation in the areas of mobility and energy.
At EEM-Empresa de Electricidade da
we want to be at the cutting edge of technology and to know which technologies
are available in order to solve or minimize potential constraints – from metering
systems, to planning, to generation. This was one of the reasons that we signed
up to the Smart Islands Energy System (SMILE) project launched in 2017, and
funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.
The project was created to demonstrate and test 9 different smart grid technologies on three islands. The ultimate goal of the project was to make the products and solutions developed market-ready and set for rollout anywhere in the world. RINA Consulting was responsible for the overall Project Coordination and Management, as well as the activities related to ‘smartening’ the distribution grid.
EEM believes that smart grids are a key step in the transition towards clean and affordable energy. By monitoring energy flows in real time, ‘prosumers’ can match locally produced energy to their own demand, automatically reducing costs and avoiding an imbalance in the grid. This is a particular issue for an isolated electrical grid like that on the island of Madeira (Portugal).
EEM generates, transports, distributes, and commercializes electricity, which made it all the more important to have a partner like RINA, which brings multi-disciplinary expertise to the table across the range of energy generation, storage distribution and digital services.
Both islands in the Madeira archipelago are isolated systems, so when more renewable assets are added to the system, grid stability and security of supply must be guaranteed. Photovoltaic production, which is directly related to solar irradiation, for example, does not correspond with peaks in demand and the unpredictable nature and intermittence of this type of energy generation can be difficult to manage when there are no control systems (such as in very small-scale installations). This creates several different kinds of issues (frequency and voltage deviations, harmonics, among others). Madeira expects to have an approximate 50% share of Renewable Energy systems in the energy mix by the end of 2025 so it is a real issue.
Island locations were chosen for the SMILE project due to the unique challenge of providing smart grid solutions for off-grid locations, or in areas where the grid is not easy to manage and where the connection to the main grid is less resilient. Madeira is the only island in the project that is 100% electrically isolated from the mainland, and all energy consumed on the island must be generated on the island itself. It is also very remote, at 1,000 km from the Portuguese mainland, with a population of just 251,000 residents. These elements bring significant challenges.
In total, Madeira carried out 5
all integrated in one energy management system. Two of these 5 pilots are
related to the optimization of self-consumption, which involved an evaluation
of the unused energy surplus in eighteen existing test bed self-production
sites. Seven battery electrical storage systems (BESS) were installed in the
five sites with the most surplus (4 domestic and 1 commercial).
A third pilot scheme involved providing frequency and voltage support, by selecting the grid with the highest ratio of PV peak power installed and the lowest load consumption. The aim was to explore the storage of surplus energy produced, preventing the power flow from the LV level to MV, while ensuring grid support by increasing the energy quality parameters diminishing the limits established by the EN 50160:2010.
Finally, in the last 2 pilot schemes dynamic smart-charging was tested in the Tukxi Tours private charging site and in the EEM headquarters’ garage in order to change the current rate output of existing chargers and a charging management system. Smart electric mobility is still underexplored in Madeira but electric vehicles are our future and the project will help Madeira expand its electric vehicle network going forward. Due to the COVID outbreak, Tukxi Tours ceased operations. To overcome this, a digital-twin was done to test the smart-charge algorithms.
As part of the project, user interface dashboards from the energy management system were created showing real-time consumption, with the ability to search by specific date and appliance. Such monitoring systems are fed by data retrieved by plug-ins that are used in household appliances. These systems harness the power of ‘demand side management’. By giving end users more knowledge, it enables them to adapt their consumption, which ultimately contributes to energy efficiency. For us, maximising energy efficiency decreases the CO2 emissions in the Island.
RINA was a key partner for us in the project, providing strong leadership and a bridge between the other partners in the project, and with the European Union. This support was vital for a relative beginner to Horizon 2020 such as EEM. In its role as project coordinator, RINA was also able to provide funding advice, assisting with the application for EU funds and subsequent financial reporting.
Christoph Schladoer, Vice President Decarbonisation Carnival Maritime
Schladoer studied Marine Mechanical Engineering in Hamburg. During a period in
scientific research on an alternative scrubber technology, he achieved a PhD.
After that, he worked for a shipyard designing energy supply systems and
exhaust treatment solutions for offshore, heavy lift and passenger vessels.
In 2015, Christoph joined Carnival Maritime and built up a department managing large technical retrofit and upgrade projects on cruise ships.
Since early 2022, he has led a newly-created department focusing on the pathway towards a climate neutral cruise fleet operation. His focus areas are R&D, fuel strategy, energy management, and data analytics within the Costa Group, Carnival Corporation and across the maritime industry.
In the shipping
industry, the energy transition currently turns on two axes. In the short-term,
effective ship operation is the key to reducing fuel consumption and
consequently the emission of greenhouse gases.
Digital tools and intelligent energy management systems can utilize the fuel and energy streams on board in smart ways, maximising results. With this approach, shipowners and operators can operate their fleets to optimise overall energy output.
In the medium to long term, as soon as alternative fuels are available at commercial scale, the transition to new energy sources will start.
Biogenic fuels can enable significant GHG avoidance in this decade, through drop-in fuels (biodiesel, biomethane) and with technical retrofits (biomethanol in engines and fuel cells).
Due to the limited feedstocks for biofuels, a transition to e-fuels will be required. Alternative fuels will act as hydrogen carriers, while the carbon cycle needs to be closed over the lifetime of a fuel.
Carbon capture on board cruise ships is unlikely to solve the problem of GHG emission release. But it can take a role in the avoidance of remaining emissions from sustainable fuels.
In the battle against climate change, regulation will be key. The shipping and aviation industries are already working on concrete plans to find solutions to reduce their emissions without affecting their business models.
Therefore, it is crucial that regulators, in Europe and elsewhere, establish a framework that allows the production of renewable energy in sufficient quantities.
There has been much discussion in Europe about energy and technology independence. Both are important. Cooperation between companies is the key to fostering and enabling technologies. This will build up demand and lead to the creation of infrastructure while securing feedstocks for the sector.
Energy independence must be dealt with at another level. The challenges for the maritime industry have to be solved on an international level. Energy independence affects the whole of Europe, whereas technology independence is a sector-specific topic.
European Union, iron and steel production is responsible for about 5% of all greenhouse
gas emissions. Steel can be manufactured from an integrated route (with a blast
furnace) which produces “virgin” steel starting from non-renewable raw
materials such as iron ore and coal. This accounts for approximately 60% of
steel produced. The remaining 40% is produced with recycled scrap using an
In the process of using a blast furnace, the production of CO2 per tonne of steel is around 1,900 kg, while the current average intensity of CO2 using the electric furnace route is from 200 to 300 kg of CO2 per tonne of steel, thus about 80% less than the integrated route.
For steel production from an electric furnace, carbon neutrality and the goals of the Paris agreement are direct and realistic targets and can be achieved by reducing energy consumption, together with procuring renewable energy, increasing recycled scrap in the charge, and capturing the technically unavoidable CO2 residual.
For the blast furnace route, climate neutrality is something much more complex and requires a complete review of the production process using new hydrogen technologies which aim to replace the natural gas used in direct reduced iron (DRI) with green hydrogen (H-DRI).
Acciaieria Arvedi is a steel works that uses electric furnaces, a technology chosen in 1992 by our Chairman Giovanni Arvedi who, with a strategic vision, adopted an extremely innovative production process which has allowed the company to produce flat rolled steel using recycled material and with low energy consumption.
Today Acciaieria Arvedi SpA uses over 70% of scrap metal in its charge mix, using self-produced and purchased renewable energy for a scope 1 and scope 2 carbon intensity (quantified according to GHG PROTOCOL) of about 118 kg per tonne of steel produced.
Stefano Fasani, Open-es Program Manager and Head of Supplier Sustainability, Coordination & Development at Eni
Stefano was born in
Lodi, Italy, and subsequently graduated in Computer Engineering at the
Politecnico di Milano. He joined ENI in 2019 as Head of Procurement,
Innovation, People Knowledge & Change. Over time, he has held various
positions of responsibility for Procurement and Market Intelligence activities
in the Digital & Technology field, dealing with, among other things, the
design and implementation of a new sourcing model dedicated to Open Innovation.
Since 2020, Stefano has been in charge of the Open-es initiative, a digital platform-based alliance which brings together the industrial, financial and associated industries to support companies on the road to sustainability through collaboration, measurement and growth.
Achieving the long-term goal of
development will require a far-reaching transformation of today’s economic,
industrial and social systems. This is a process in which companies - from
large industrial groups to small and medium-sized enterprises - are the main participants.
The main challenge that companies face today is the bureaucratic burden of how to answer stakeholders’ various questions on ESG performance without having a clear and realistic vision on the skills and actions needed to improve their corporate sustainability profile.
These questions are coming from many stakeholders including, for example, customers in procurement processes, banks in financial relations, and institutional bodies with oversight of the companies or providing industry support.
Out of this need came the Open-es Alliance, a system initiative which brings together industry, finance, and institutions to facilitate the process of measuring, sharing, and developing ESG performance.
The Alliance operates through a digital platform which is open to all. It is a unique platform, in which the component of sustainability data sharing is accompanied by a particular focus on the theme of growth and collaboration between companies, through a simple and flexible approach.
Launched by Eni with the Boston Consulting Group and Google Cloud at the beginning of 2021, Open-es already counts more than 10,000 participating companies and includes important Italian and international companies as partners such as Iveco Group, WeBuild, Snam, TIM, Accenture, Autostrade per l'Italia, Saipem, KPMG, Baker Hughes, RINA and illimity Bank.
It is also backed by associations such as Confindustria, Assolombarda, Confimprese, Assorisorse, and reference institutes from the world of science and research such as the ESG European Institute, SDA Bocconi and LUISS.
It is a community that through discussion, collaboration and the identification of priority actions is contributing to the sustainable development of the entire ecosystem.